APEX: The area on the inside of a turn at which the car finishes the entry phase and begins the exit phase. The car must be as balanced as possible when it “clips” this point.
BALANCE: The relative amount of weight - or download - at each wheel. Download changes - front to back and side to side - affect traction and handling as various forces are applied to the car (e.g., acceleration, deceleration, shifting, braking, inclines, variable road surfaces, etc.).
CONE: A traffic pylon used to mark various points on the track, such as Turn-In, Apex, Track- Out, locations, etc.
FOUR-OFF (4-OFF): Four wheels off the edge of the track surface. This is sometimes referred to as an off-track excursion.
GRID: At Road Atlanta, the final preparations that occur on Pit Lane prior to sending the cars in a Run Group onto the track.
HEEL-AND-TOE: A down shifting technique used to match engine speed with transmission speeds, all the while continuing to brake. The sequence is: brake; clutch in; “blip” the throttle with the right side of the right foot; shift to lower gear; clutch out. Brake pedal pressure should remain constant throughout this sequence.
LIFT(ING): Letting off the gas pedal.
LINE: The optimum path around the track. In corners, this path is usually the largest radius arc that can be fit into the confines of the turn. The "line" can vary with track conditions and the type of car being driven.
OVERSTEER: In cornering, conditions in which front tires have more traction than rears, causing the rear of the car to point to the outside and the nose to point to the inside.
ROLL: Movement (or tilt) of the car which changes the ride height on the left or right of the vehicle’s centerline.
RUN GROUPS: Four number-coded groupings used in the Driver’s Education program that separate drivers according to their skill and experience levels.
SPIN: Condition were the car rotated direction, either on, or off of the track.
START-FINISH: A line across the track at the Start-Finish Flag Station.
TRACK-OUT: The point past a turn, typically at the far outside edge, at which the car has completed the turning stage and all the dynamic forces acting on the car are in balance.
TRACK SESSION: A period when the cars in a particular Run Group are out on the track.
TURN-IN: The point at the entrance to a turn at which the driver first turns the steering wheel to initiate the cornering sequence.
TWO-OFF (2-OFF): Two wheels off the edge of the track surface.
UNDERSTEER: In cornering, the condition in which the rear tires have more traction than the fronts, causing the fronts to slide across the road toward the outside edge rather than turning or pulling the car into the turn.
WAVING (FLAG): The flag is held by the stick, unfurled, and waved energetically in a figure eight pattern toward oncoming cars.